A binocular instrument is one that you look through with both eyes, to make things look larger. There are binocular telescopes, binocular microscopes
, and so on, but the word is usually applied to a 'field glass,' which is small and light enough to hold to your eyes with your hand, and which allows you to see things that are far away. The field glass is actually two tubes, or small telescopes, joined together at the top. Each tube has a lens at both ends. A lens is a glass that lets light come through it.
Without light you could never see anything. The light comes through the lens at the bottom. This is called the objective lens. Whatever light comes through the objective lens is enlarged or magnified. In a modern, or prism, binocular, the light goes straight in and hits a prism.
A prism is a piece of glass cut at angles so that it forms a sort of triangle. The prism sends the light to another prism beside it. From here the light goes to the lens in the eyepiece, through which you look. The prisms are very important, because they change the direction of the light.
As light from an object enters the objective lens it is upside down, but the prisms turn it right side up again. The prisms also make it possible to see a wider view. The objective lenses are farther apart than the eyes, and the prisms bring the light inward to the eyepieces that are closer together. A binocular is described by its poiver and its field. A 'six-power, thirty-five' binocular (written 6x, 35) makes things look six times as big as they seem to the naked eye and has an objective lens that is 35 millimeters in diameter (almost an inch and a half across). The most useful binoculars for everyday use are six- or eight-power, and the best field on these is 50-millimeter. Some binoculars used in the army and the navy can enlarge an object as much as 144 times
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